Prepare for disappointment
You'd think that as you're reading this that somebody, somewhere is busy cross compiling GCC, or building the latest LLVM with all the backends. You'd think by now, after all these years, it would be an easy process. You'd think that after using Go, that there would be a simple command in LLVM to tell you what all targets are available.
But alas, you'd be cataclysmically wrong! It is easy to compile the latest GCC for your host, but cross compiling it still requires voodoo magic. Even if you follow exact directions online with the exact specified versions of everything, it will almost certainly not work. At least it only takes maybe an hour to fail. While it is easy to compile LLVM, it is a marathon 8 hour or so compile, only to find a small subset of available backends exist. The windows backend still requires microsoft tools to compile, the os x and freebsd backends are not present.
I can only assume the Go team went to hell in a hand basket to make it trivially easy to compile Go to whatever target platform you want by just adding a couple of variables indicating the OS and architecture (eg Linux ARM). They must subscribe to forums and ask a lot of questions about why the latest LLVM doesn't do this or that as expected.
From the experience I had, I would suggest in all honesty, if you want to cross compile to various target platforms, use Go. I haven't tried it, but apparently Rust makes it equally easy. So if you have a choice of language, use one of those.
Some good options
So what if you're stuck using C++? Well, naturally there are others who have done the hard work, and as you'd expect, you can find docker containers. The multiarch/cross-build container provides GCC compilers that target Linux (x86, arm, mips, powerpc), Windows x86, OS X x86. I also wanted to target FreeBSD just to add something that would be more of a challenge. I found a docker container for it, but it uses a really old GCC that only supports C++ 98.
Popular Linux distros will likely provide a MinGW group of packages. They provide cross compilers for Windows x86 including a resource compiler so you can add a custom icon and other things Windows expects to find in compiled resources. You can always use a VM to compile code for any target of interest, so I use that for FreeBSD. I used a technique I'll call two way SSH that works as follows:
- Linux installs an SSH cert into VM so make can invoke the VM compiler without a password.
- The VM installs an SSH cert into the Linux host so it can use fuse to mount the host OS filesystem via ssh, so the VM compiler can read sources and compile objects directly on the host. If you run make a second time in the VM without changing anything, make correctly reports "Nothing to do".
The reason for using this strategy is twofold:
- The FreeBSD provided VirtualBox Guest Additions are flaky, just because a dir or file is listed, does not mean you can actually read the contents of it
- It should work on any kind of virtualization (eg, QEMU)
So here are the best options I found to compile on Linux for my targets of interest:
- Linux: OS packages, multiarch/cross-build
- Windows: MinGW OS packages, multiarch/cross-build
- OS X: multiarch/cross-build
- FreeBSD: A FreeBSD VM using two way SSH
This yields different strategies depending on your chosen platforms:
- Linux and Windows: use OS packages and MinGW OS packages
- OS X with zero or more of Linux and Windows: multiarch/cross-build
- Any other systems: a VM with two way ssh
A reuseable Makefile
I came up with a Makefile that can be easily modified into whatever is needed for a given platform, it just covers what I consider the basics:
- Separate include and src dirs
- include/all and src/all for code that compiles the same on all targets
- include/ and src/ dirs for platform specific code
- auto discovers newly created .h and .cpp files as they are added
- g++ generates dependencies in the form of .d files that contain a simple make rule, so that once the initial compile is done, further compiles only have to compile the changed files and files that depend on them.
- build debug and release versions
- separate Makefiles for each platform, with one top level Makefile that calls all of them in a specified order
- Makefiles have a lot of variables declared at the top, and a vars target to display them
- If new variables are added to a platform Makefile, run the vars-generate target to regenerate the set of values printed by the vars target
- Common directory structure for all targets:
- make/<platform>/build/(debug, release)/(all, )/*.(o,d)
- make/<platform>/build/app/(debug, release)/(app, any other files required to run it)
There are only minor differences between these Makefiles, and only for variables:
- PLATFORM_LC = linux, windows, osx, freebsd
- APP_NAME = app on linux, osx, freebsd, app.exe on windows
- DEBUG_APP_OPTS: empty on linux, osx, freebsd, -static on windows
- linux: -s
- windows: -static -s
- osx: empty
- freebsd: -s
I purposely set out to make the smallest possible differences between them, and that is the best I could do for a simple cli application. A gui app would generally have more differences.
The -static app option for windows makes a static binary, so no dlls have to be copied, only the exe and any data files it needs. The os x compiler does not need -static, not sure if I'm just lucky and the expected C++ library version just happens to match, or if os x always compiles statically. The os x compiler will not accept -s to strip uncalled functions, it causes an error.
The top level Makefile uses docker to compile for linux, windows, and os x, and assumes a FreeBSD VM is running that it can invoke via ssh on a port number stored in a variable (5222, chosen as the digit 5 is closest to the letter F in appearance). This Makefile auto discovers make/<platform> subdirectores for every operation except compiling.
Using a single docker container for linux, windows, and osx goes a long way to making this easy. The great thing about how the FreeBSD VM works via ssh, is that it is a very general solution that should work for pretty much any more niche OS you need to support, with any virtualization you choose to use.
I found this project frustrating initially, until I just gave upon cross compiling gcc/LLVM. After that, it was kind of fun! The github project referenced at the top contains all the gory details of every Makefile variable and target, as well as how to configure FreeBSD 13.0 to mount an SSH filesystem at boot, so all you have to do is fire it up and wait for the login prompt before running make.